Subject Indexing


A number of terms for general concepts are used consistently and often in indexing and abstracts. All entries are indexed under one or more of these broad or generic terms and these terms are used wherever appropriate in abstracts.

Some index terms may be particularly useful. For example, nearly all materials are indexed under the either the terms "expression" (for recombinant products), "synthesis" (for chemical substances), "fermentation" (for microbial culture production), and/or broad classes such as "proteins" or "lipids." All drugs, biologics and therapeutic materials and procedures are indexed and referred to as "treatments." All "treatments" and "diagnostics" which have been or are on track for testing in humans are indexed under "trials." All genes and gene sequences are indexed under "genes."

Consistently Used Index Terms:

administration (administration of a treatment; see also delivery; routes/methods of administration, e.g., oral, aerosol)

algorithms (used for computer programs and software)

analysis (any chemical analysis)

animals; animal models; lab animals

animal tested (indicates tested in animals; see also more specific terms, e.g., primate tested)

anti- (generally not used, e.g., for antifungals use fungal infection treatments)

antibodies (often used for monoclonal antibodies in indexing and abstracts)

apparatus (any equipment or hardware; see also lab equipment, medical equipment, surgical equipment, etc.)

bioreactors (used for culture and fermentation apparatus)

cell lines (specific cell lines are indexed under this term and under their designations, uses, etc.)

chemical names (formal nomenclature and generic terms are used; inverted forms of chemical nomenclature are provided, e.g., "(+)-4-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan-6-one" is also indexed as "morphinan-6-one, (+)-4-methoxy-N-methyl-")

clinical trials [use "trials" in the database] (any treatment or diagnostic tested or on track for testing in humans is indexed under "clinical trials"; the terms "clinical trials" or simply "trials" are often appended to other descriptors, e.g, "septic shock treatments, Staphylococcus vaccine clinical trials")

conjugates (refers to chemical linkage or where type of linkage is unknown; may also include expression as fusion proteins; See also immunotoxins, immune conjugates, radioimmune conjugates, fusion proteins.

culture; cell culture; culture media; etc.

cytotoxicity (used for cellular immunity and T-cell cytotoxicity)

delivery (general term for in vivo delivery of treatments to desired sites; see also organ- and treatment-specific terms)

diagnostics (used for all assays or testing for biological analytes or disease diagnosis; includes biochemical, metabolic, behavioral and other assays and tests, some of which may not routinely be termed diagnostics; see also immunodiagnostics, radiodiagnostics, etc.)

enzymes (all enzymes are indexed under this term); enzyme inhibitors

expression (used to index all recombinant expressed proteins; see also "genes" and "proteins")

fermentation (includes microbial culture production)

fusion proteins (conjugates formed by recombinant expression of fused genes)

gene therapy (used for any gene transfer into human or animal cells)

genes (includes all cloned genes, gene sequences and genetic constructs; see "expression" for gene products)

genetic methods (indicates broadly applicable genetic technologies)

growth factors

human (generally not used, most entries can be presumed to be relevant to humans unless otherwise indicated)

hybridoma cell lines (generally use monoclonal antibodies; used only where specific hybridomas are discussed in the abstract)

immune treatments, immune modulators, immune stimulants, etc. (used for treatments broadly affecting the immune system)

immunodiagnostics (any use of antibodies or antigens to detect corresponding antigens or antibodies)

immunotoxins (antibody-toxin or antibody-drug conjugates, including chemical conjugates and fusion proteins)


lab equipment (any equipment which may be found in a laboratory, present or future)

lab reagents (any reagents which may be found in a laboratory, present or future)

liposomal; liposomes

measurements (used for physical measurements, e.g., force, pressure, flow rates)

medical equipment (any equipment which may be found in a hospital or medical center, present or future)

metabolism (refers to both cellular- and organism-level metabolism)

methods (used in indexing to indicate broad applicability and significance of technology)

models (see also animal models)

neurological (includes nervous system and nerve cells)

oligonucleotide probes (used for RNA/DNA hybridization-based probes, assays and diagnostics, including PCR)

peptides (see also "synthetic peptides"; polypeptides are generally indexed as proteins)

primates (used for nonhuman primates, e.g., monkeys and macaques; "primate tested" indicates testing in primates)

prosthetics (assisting devices, attached or implanted)

proteins (includes native/purified, synthetic and recombinant expressed proteins)

purification (also use separation and extraction)

radio- (prefix used to indicate involvement of any type of radiation or radioactive compounds

radiodiagnostics (any use of radiation or radioactive compounds for diagnosis or organ/tissue imaging)

radiotreatments (any treatment use of radiation or radioactive compounds)

receptors; receptor inhibitors

recombinant (use "expression," "genes," etc.)

rejection (used for organ, graft and transplant rejection)

screening (includes any in vitro or other testing/modeling of potential treatments, rational drug design, etc.)

sensors; biosensors

standards (used for reference materials, standards development, etc.)

synthesis (used for all synthetic compounds and materials, even where synthesis may not be described in a patent or be an important part of a CRADA)

treatments (used to encompass all drugs, biologics and therapeutic materials and procedures)

tumor (entries involving cancer are also indexed with appropriate tumor-related terms)

vectors (used for any recombinant construct for gene transfer and/or expression, including plasmids, viral vectors, vaccine vectors, gene therapy vectors, etc.)

viral; retroviral

Subject Indexing Approach

A faceted subject index approach is used. Indexing terms describe the different aspects or concepts involving each entry (e.g., materials, uses, diseases, organisms, processes, products, etc.). Generally, multiple descriptors are linked with each other to form descriptors which more completely describe an entry (e.g., "dideoxycytidine, HIV-infection treatment trials" and "chromosomal breakpoints, genetic diagnostics").

Humans and healthcare are emphasized in indexing and abstracting. For example, an entry concerning HIV proteins for vaccines and for production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of HIV is primarily indexed in terms of "HIV vaccines" and "HIV immunodiagnostics," although there will be entries concerning the specific HIV proteins/antigens involved. Certain terms take precedence and implicitly include other terms, e.g., the term "vaccines" generally presumes the availability of and includes proteins/antigens, and the term "immunodiagnostics" generally presumes or includes antigens/ antibodies.